According to traditional accounts, on September 7, 1822, Emperor-to-be Dom Pedro declared Brazilian independence next to the Ipiranga River. A palatial monument, built to commemorate the moment, eventually became the Ipiranga Museum. The museum closed for repairs in 2013 and has just reopened on Brazil’s bicentenary (September 7). Often contrary, the exhibits offer a sharply critical look at the way history is traditionally taught, right down to the explanation of the room-sized painting “Independence of Death” by 19th-century painter Pedro Américo, which depicts the moment when Dom Pedro, on horseback, declared independence from Portugal. Exhibits range from household items and historical photographs to a sound and light show projected onto a scale model replica of São Paulo in 1841. Free entry until December 6, then 30 reais.